We've been stocking Mulino Marino flour for quite some time and have found that they perform consistently, producing great loaves of bread and perfect cakes. With such an extensive range and with them being called by their wonderfully evocative Italian names it's sometimes confusing choosing which flour suits which loaf best ... so we asked Angus McCraig, friend, chef, tutor and the owner of our favourite pub The Holt if he might put them to the test and give us a rough guide to what the flours do best. I think you will agree that this chart is a fantastic guide to the flours, and makes choosing the right one really easy.

Mulino Marino Flour bagsAngus, along with his brother Joe, of the Otter Brewery clan, has been running his restaurant in Honiton since 2005 with great success and local acclaim. Recently, Angus has started running bread courses, using his extensive experience and kitchen facilities. We have had lots of very positive accounts of the courses - which tend to be booked some time in advance.


I decided to look at the the range of flours from Mulino Marino stocked by BakeryBits and to do my own trials, ignoring the details and specifications published, to find my own results from tests in my kitchen at The Holt.

I've suggested my recommendations for each of the flours, but of course you could use any of them for standard sourdough, yeast or perhaps your Sekowa loaves.

I have devised a standard set of characteristics to describe each flour and how it performs, so that they may be compared. Most of the terms used are self explanatory, but there are a couple that probably warrant clarificiation:

  • Extensibility: this is the ability of the dough to stretch without tearing. Shortened to EX in the table.
  • Elasticity: this is the ability of the gluten in the dough to pull the dough back into shape after stretching. Shortened to EL in the table.


baked breadIn a balanced dough, the extensibility and elasticity will allow for a higher hydration which means that the dough has a higher tensile strength and so is more able to support itself if made into a freeform loaf and gives the bread a more open texture.

I looked for other characteristics too:

  • Final Fold: The performance at the final fold of the dough. The easier the dough is to manipulate at the final stage before baking, the better balanced the extensibility and elasticity of the dough.
  • Rise: The speed and consistency of the rise of the dough at ambient (warm kitchen) temperature, reflects the quality and availability of the starches and sugars.
  • Colour: How well did the crust of the loaf colour? I am looking for an even, rich golden to deep brown.
  • Crumb: Subjective view of the appearance of the crumb, looking at the openness, evenness and chewiness.
  • Crust: I am looking for a crust with crackle and resistance when bitten.
  • Flavour: the flours vary of course, but I am looking for excellence, whether in terms of complexity of taste or smell - I need to like it.


The same recipe was used for each flour. To get a consistent loaf for comparison, of the flour used, I used 1/3 Mulino Marino and 2/3 a generic 12.5% strong white bread flour. The recipe used 70g sourdough starter per kg flour and 73% hydration. (At The Holt we use a small amount of sourdough starter in all our breads as the extra acidity is helpful for realxing the gluten).

Flour Type Dough Appearance Extensibility and Elasticity Final Fold Rise Bake, Crust Colour Crumb Crust Flavour Overall Mark Recommended Breads
Sapori Antichi Smooth, shiny Balanced EX and EL Very easy to manipulate, soft texture Timely, and predictable Deep golden, withstood full temp Open, opaque Maintained strong crust Nutty grain flavour, good 8.5/10 Fat based doughs, Italian breads, loaves, buns

Grano Saraceno

(Buckwheat Flour)

Soft, shiny, slack

Good, rye-like, sticky.

Good EX Very low EL

Sticky, as if no salt was added

Very quick prove

Deep brown crust

Very open nice chewiness

Toothsome, hearty, earthy

Rustic, deep fruity notes.


Pain de Campagne, Nordic rye bread. Pairs well thyme rosemary and lavender

Soft shiny yellow

Great feel, balanced EX and EL

Very easy to manipulate, soft texture

Timely, and predictable

Pale golden but darkened well +4 min

Open, opaque

Good feel, maintained good crust

Corn-like polenta flavour, very good


Baguettes, epi, Good loaves, well balanced so good for buns, plait and pugliese

Smooth, shiny

Good EX but higher EL

Tightens up quickly

Timely, and predictable Deep golden, withstood full temp

Open and even

Thin crust but still good

Well balanced


Milk breads, whey bread, ficelle, pizza, loaves, makes lovely toast

Smooth, shiny Balanced EX and EL Very easy to manipulate, soft texture

Slower but good result

Pale golden but darkened well +4 min

Open, opaque pleasant chewiness

Good feel, maintained good crust

Well balanced takes additional flavours well


A versatile dough. ciabatta, loaves, buns, pizza, sourdough loaves,

Light, smooth, shiny

High EX, low EL

Lively, smooth, nice to manipulate

Slower but good result

Deep golden, withstood full temp

Open, opaque and even

Thinner than burrato, but good

Whole grain flavour, good nose


A stable and easy to use flour suitable for most applications, with a deep satisfying flavour

Type "OO" Soffiata Very pale and light High EX, lower EL Extraordinary. Develops very quickly as v. soft and fine - pillowy Quick to rise, high EX means can slump for the very largest loaves Deep, golden crust Silken, chewy, open Good feel, often olive oil added for softer crust No intense falvour as with ancient wheats. 8/10 Good for focaccia, baguettes, rolls, loaves, pizza, pretty much anything, and loaves with added flavour such as olive oil or rosemary
 Enkir Golden, yellow  Well balanced EX and EL  Well developed in final prove Slow, but with good results  Excellent colour Open, even, slightly chewy: delicious Well formed, deep crust Superb flavour 9/10 Sourdough, freeform loaves. Fantastic on day 2 for bruschetta
 Semola di Gran Duro (Semolina)  Pale yellow Good, balanced EX and EL  Longer working needed but great results Slower rise, good flavour Deep golden. Withstood 230C baking, deep colour Textured, tasty, chewy nature. Wholesome flavour  Well formed, deep, dark and delicious Rustic flavour. We used whey for the hydration and some burnt semolina in the dough 9/10 Sourdough freeform loaves, cane bannetons
 Pandi Sempre  Golden Fantastic EX and EL  A very easy dough to work with. This blend has the benefits of wheat flour and the readily disgestible food source in Farro and Enkir  Lively rise  Good, deep colour and firm crust, lasted well  Open and delicious. Complex flavour  Well formed and visually appealing. Easy to cut and fantastic burst  Complex flavour, rustic, nutty with slight sweetness 10/10  Sourdough loaves, baguettes with a poolish, rolls, loaves,
 Type "O" Manitoba Pale dough, very smooth  High EX and less EL, pleasant to work with  Great feel, stretchy, excellent "window" Speedy with a large bubble structure Lighter crust Surprisingly large structure, opaque, toothsome  Paler crust  Light flavour, versatile  8/10 Flat bread, pizza, ciabatta. Also enriched doughs such as brioche and panettone



FlourSapori Antichi
Sapori Antichi is a stone-ground organic flour blending the ancient Kamut and Enkir flours with rye and Farro to make a pasta or pudding flour. A good nutty flavour, dependable extensibility and elasticity. Worked well in yoghurt bread, whey bread, cream and milk bread. Also good in enriched doughs.

FlourGrano Saraceno (Buckwheat Flour) - Gluten free*

Well balanced and full of essential amino acids, the Farina di Grano Saraceno has a high nutritional value, in fact its protein content can be compared to that found in meat and soybean. This flour can be mixed with others, naturally gluten-free, to prepare country style cakes, bread and it will have a taste similar to wholemeal bread. *Note that although buckwheat flour is gluten free, the mill uses the same equipment for all grains.

FlourSfarintino di Grano Duro

Durum wheat flour is ideal for pasta made without eggs and "Pugliese" bread.

The Pugliese is characterized by a moist dough which results in large holes in a well structured crumb, and a well-developed, crunchy crust. It is heavier than a Ciabatta, because is is made with a higher gluten flour, the Pugliese is typically shaped as a Batard (oval), and slashed with a single cut running lengthwise.

FlourSemola di Grano Duro (Durum Semolina)

Semolina made from durum wheat is yellow and is often used as the base for dried products such as couscous, which is made by mixing roughly 2 parts semolina with 1 part durum flour (finely ground semolina). It is also used in pasta making.

Broadly speaking, meal produced from grains other than wheat may also be referred to as semolina, e.g. rice semolina, or corn semolina (more commonly known as grits in the U.S.) When semolina comes from softer types of wheat it is white in colour. In this case, the correct name is flour, not semolina. In the United States, coarser meal coming from softer types of wheat is known also as farina.

FlourOrganic Type '0' Flour

A creamy white flour, ground to '0' on the scale of fineness, this flour is excellent for flatbreads, focaccia and very popular for pizzas.

FlourBuratto Type 2

This is an earthy flavour, extremely versatile. This is a new favourite for pizza bases, sourdough loaves, and for any breads that we want a nice rooted but not over powering flavour.

FlourKamut or Khorasan Flour

The composition of Khorasan (or Kamut) wheat has a clear advantage compared to modern wheat because it contains up to 40% more protein, which improves its vitreousness. Indeed, a significant positive correlation exists between the protein content and the vitreousness degree. Khorasan wheat is also richer in magnesium, zinc, selenium, as well as many polyphenols and fatty acids. It comprises up to 65% more amino acids and up to 30% more vitamin E than common bread wheat. One can describe Khorasan wheat as a “high energy grain” since it has a high percentage of lipids, which provides more energy than carbohydrates. Khorasan wheat contains more gluten than regular durum wheat. Its high amount of gluten coupled with its high protein content ensures a good cooking quality and therefore influences the end result positively.

FlourType "OO" Soffiata

"OO" flour is a strong wheat flour, and is the Italian equivalent to the French T55, making it ideal for crusty breads such as baguettes and as the base for more complex bakes. It is the most commonly used flour in Italy where it is also used in making egg pasta.


Enkir is a wild cereal belonging to the diploid species domesticated in the Near East 10-12000 years ago. It is considered to be the father of cereals and still grows wild in some parts of the Fertile Crescent (Turkey and Iran). Considered a key species for the birth of modern agriculture, it has a wide adaptability, minimal nutritional requirements and is naturally resistant to pests and therefore is well suited for cultivation marginal environments. For the baker, Enkir has a high protein content (between 18 and 24%) as well as essential nutrients. The naturally yellow flour is excellent in breads, pasta and biscuits.

FlourSemola di Gran Duro (Semolina)

Durum wheat is characterised by a higher protein content than standard wheats and is coarser with a yellow colour. Ideal when combined with "OO" for pasta or added to "OO" for a tastier, chewier textured bread. Commonly used when dusting peels and bannetons.

FlourPandi Sempre

FlourType "O" Manitoba

A fine, very strong flour designed for long fermentations and where lots of lift is required, bakes such as panettone, Colomba Pasquale and pastries.